Grierson Gopalan Syndrome

Dr. Elizabeth M Anderson MD
Dr. Elizabeth M Anderson is an orthopedic surgeon. She is well known for his specialty in fracture, spine injury, and emergency management. She has several publications and expertise on pediatric surgery also. Dr. Elizabeth M Anderson is the chief orthopedic surgeon of learnfromdoctor.

What is Grierson Gopalan Syndrome?

Grierson Gopalan Syndrome is a collection of symptoms in which your feet become hot and red, and you feel an extreme burning sensation on your feet.

Grierson-Gopalan Syndrome is also known as burning feet syndrome. This burning sensation is mild in the morning but becomes intense and unbearable at night.

Grierson-Gopalan Syndrome affects mostly the sole of your feet, but it can spread to your ankle and full lower leg.

The extreme burning sensation resembles your feet are on fire. If you touch your feet when you feel that burning sensation, you’d feel very hot.

Often people think that the feet are not hot; it’s just their imagination. But the fact is your feet are really hot while you feel that burning sensation.

It becomes almost impossible to sleep when somebody suffers from burning feet syndrome.

This article will discuss Grierson Gopalan Syndrome, its symptoms, causes, risk factors, treatments, prevention, etc.

Grierson Gopalan Syndrome Symptoms

There are some common symptoms of burning feet syndrome. The most common of them is an extreme burning sensation on the sole of your feet. The other symptoms of Grierson-Gopalan Syndrome may include;

Grierson Gopalan Syndrome Symptoms
Grierson Gopalan Syndrome Symptoms
  • Hot and burning sensation
  • The burning sensation becomes intense at night
  • The burning sensations stay mild in the morning
  • Loss of sensation in the feet and sometimes entire lower leg
  • You may feel the leg heavier
  • Sharp pain in the feet
  • The feet become red and appear bloody
  • Tingling sensation

When you touch your feet, you may feel a warm to hot sensation. Very rarely, your leg may become swollen.

Grierson Gopalan Syndrome Causes

There can be a wide range of causes for burning feet syndrome. The doctor diagnoses the exact and provides exact treatment for that. The possible causes of Grierson Gopalan Syndrome Symptoms may include;

Nervous System Abnormality

Nerve damage can be caused by various illnesses and events such as falls from height, vascular disease, tumor or mass formation, etc. Different degenerative conditions of the bones and organs may often lead to nerve damage or entrapment.

The various condition of nerve abnormality that may lead to Grierson Gopalan Syndrome may include;

Peripheral Neuropathy

Peripheral neuropathy is the principal cause of burning feet syndrome. It occurs when the lower limb’s sensory nerves are compressed or damaged.

Some people are more likely to be affected by peripheral neuropathy than others because of some existing clinical conditions. These clinical conditions may include;

  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Tuberculosis
  • Autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Kidney failure
  • Infections
  • Tumors
  • Bone marrow disorders
  • Exposure to certain toxic chemicals
  • Chronic alcoholism
  • Some drugs and medications
  • Vitamin B12 deficiency
  • Malabsorption syndrome

Peripheral neuropathy is a gradual process. It will worsen over time if it is left untreated. Peripheral neuropathy may lead to certain complications such as;

  • Burning sensation
  • Loss of sensation
  • Chronic infections
  • Legs become weak
  • Unstable leg

When the condition is severe, you may not stand or fall from standing because of the weakness of the lower limb.

Grierson Gopalan Syndrome Causes
Grierson Gopalan Syndrome Causes

Tarsal Tunnel Syndrome

A tarsal tunnel is a narrow space inside your ankle, close to the ankle bones. A sensory nerve (tibial nerve) passes through it along with some other contents. Compression of that nerve may lead to a clinical condition known as tarsal tunnel syndrome.

Tarsal tunnel syndrome mimics the carpal tunnel syndrome of the wrist. The common symptoms of tarsal tunnel syndrome may include;

  • Pain
  • Burning sensation
  • Tingling
  • The numbness
  • Sharp pain

Tarsal tunnel syndrome is often associated with burning feet syndrome. You may experience the symptoms of tarsal tunnel syndrome on your ankle and other parts of the lower leg.

The tarsal tunnel syndrome is one of the common causes of Grierson Gopalan-Syndrome. If the condition is left untreated, it may lead to complete and irreversible tibial nerve damage.

Morton’s Neuroma

Morton’s Neuroma is a condition characterized by thickened nerve tissue between the bones at the base of your toes. This condition may cause burning feet syndrome.

The common causes of Morton’s Neuroma may include;

  • Wearing tight shoes
  • Physical injury
  • Sports injury
  • Abnormal shape of the leg
  • Abnormal movement of the leg
  • Compression of the nerve by any external factors

Morton’s Neuroma can occur in any person. However, people with some pre-existing conditions such as Diabetes Mellitus are more likely to get affected by Morton’s Neuroma.

Charcot-Marie Tooth Disorder

Charcot-Marie Tooth Disorder is an inherited disorder that affects the peripheral nervous system. In this disorder, the person cannot walk or stand properly because of the weakness caused by nerve damage on their feet and legs.

This disorder affects the muscles and nerves of your lower limb, so the muscles cannot provide strength to the bone, and the bones become vulnerable to fracture.

Most people affected with Charcot-Marie Tooth Disorder experience bone fractures in their early life, and they need bracing for proper strength and leading a normal life.

This condition may cause burning feet syndrome and arise some related complications that make your life difficult.

Nervous System Injury

The peripheral nervous system injury may lead to some painful conditions, including complex regional pain syndrome. These conditions themselves are painful as well, as they may contribute to the development of Grierson Gopalan-Syndrome.

Burning Feet Syndrome Causes
Burning Feet Syndrome Causes

Endocrine Disorders

Some endocrine disorders may cause burning feet syndrome. These endocrine disorders may include;

Diabetes Mellitus

Diabetes Mellitus is a common metabolic and endocrine disorder. It affects the different systems of the body. It may affect the sensory nerves of your lower body, including the feet and legs.

The peripheral nervous system gets affected by diabetes mellitus if it stays uncontrolled and untreated. Damage to the nervous system may lead to burning feet syndrome.

High blood glucose levels interfere with the sensory signal transmission from your legs to the brain and spinal cord. So the blood pressure maintaining is important.

Thyroid Hormone Disorder

Thyroid hormone disorders can be classified into two types.

  • Hyperthyroidism
  • Hypothyroidism

Hypothyroidism is responsible for Grierson Gopalan Syndrome. This condition arises when the circulating thyroid hormone level is lower than the normal volume.

Hypothyroidism has some other side effects along with the burning feet syndrome, which may include;

  • Certain cardiac conditions
  • Goiter
  • Peripheral nerve injuries
  • Reduced renal function
  • Nervous system damage
  • Sleep apnea

Hypothyroidism is treatable by certain medications. If you experience hypothyroidism symptoms with or without Grierson-Gopalan Syndrome, you should consult a doctor.

Feet Infections

Athlete’s Foot

Athlete’s foot can lead to burning feet syndrome. It is a condition that arises from fungal infection on the feet and the toes. It occurs in persons who do not care for their feet’ hygiene.

The athletes who wear shoes for a long time, the pool workers, the persons who wear damp socks for a long time are more likely to be affected by athlete’s foot.

Athlete’s foot arises some symptoms along with the burning feet syndrome such as;

  • Loss of sensation
  • Cracks on the feet
  • Itching
  • Signs of infection
  • Discoloration of the skin
  • Puss formation

Some specific fungus grows in the feet in this unhealthy environment. More specifically, the dermatophytes are the fungi responsible for the athlete’s foot.

Other Causes

Some causes are responsible for Grierson Gopalan Syndrome. These conditions may include;

Allergic Conditions

An allergic reaction can be one major cause of burning feet syndrome. Various factors trigger body sensitivity and lead to allergic reactions. The common causes of allergic reactions may include;

  • Certain foods
  • Certain drugs
  • Infections
  • Cloths and shoe materials
  • Dust
  • Feet infections

Allergic reaction-induced burning feet syndrome is rapidly treatable by anti-allergic medications.

Erythromelalgia

It’s a condition that can affect both your legs and your arms. This condition is characterized by an intense burning sensation, redness, raised temperature, swelling of the limbs, tenderness, and other symptoms.

This burning sensation can increase day by day and suddenly decrease and become normal. The exact cause of erythromelalgia is unknown, but some experts think it’s probably an autoimmune disease.

Dermatitis

Inflammation of the superficial layer of your skin is called dermatitis. Inflammation in your feet’ skin may cause Grierson Gopalan Syndrome.

There are multiple causes of burning feet syndrome. You should consult a doctor to get rid of this condition and lead a healthy life.

Grierson Gopalan syndrome | Burning...
Grierson Gopalan syndrome | Burning Feet Syndrome | Explained!

Grierson-Gopalan Syndrome Diagnosis

The diagnosis of Grierson Gopalan Syndrome is mainly clinical. The doctor will evaluate your signs and symptoms and perform a physical examination on your limbs.

The doctor may ask you about your drug history, food history, clothing history, and existing medical conditions.

Burning Feet Syndrome Symptoms
Burning Feet Syndrome Symptoms

Clinical Examination

The doctor evaluates your clinical history and other associated medical histories in the clinical examination. The doctor will also examine your reflexes, senses and other condition of your legs.

If there is any infection or injury, the doctor will ask about the incidents.

Blood Tests

Certain blood tests are necessary to evaluate the existing condition causing the burning feet syndrome. These blood tests may include;

  • Complete blood count
  • Blood glucose level
  • Nutritional deficiency test
  • Magnesium, sodium and other electrolytes level
  • Serum cholesterol level
  • Certain infections
  • Serum protein test etc.

Other tests such as urine and swab tests can be recommended for proper diagnosis and treatment.

Nervous System Tests

A nervous system examination is necessary to determine the causes responsible for burning feet syndrome. The doctor may advise you for multiple nervous system tests, but the most common tests may include;

Electromyography

This test evaluates muscle contraction according to the nerve impulse. The procedure may involve;

  • Inserting a small needle into your muscle
  • Monitoring your muscle contraction
  • Monitoring the nerve impulse
  • Monitoring the pain
  • Monitoring the degree of sensations

Electromyography determines the condition of the sensory nerves of the affected area. As mentioned earlier, central nervous system conditions may also lead to Grierson Gopalan Syndrome.

Evaluation of your nervous system helps the doctor reach the confirmational diagnosis and start the treatment.

Nerve Conduction Velocity Test

This nervous system examination is performed to determine the velocity of nerve impulses into the affected area.

If the nerves are damaged in any area of your leg or sole, the conduction velocity will be lower.

This procedure may involve placing electrodes on the nerve pathway and providing another stimulation to perform the test.

Sensory Tests

This test is performed to evaluate those sensory nerves coming from your leg. In this test; the doctor may use a feather or key to provide stimulation on your sole in a circular motion.

The doctor evaluates the response of your legs and your facial expressions.

Home Remedy

Some home remedies are available for temporary relief from the burning feet syndrome.

Cold Water Therapy

Take a bowl and put some ice cubes in that bowl. Soak your feet on that bowl for some time. If the water is too cold for you, you may use just cool water instead of ice cubes.

Soaking your feet in cold water negative temporary relief. Applying this method before going to sleep may help you get a night of proper sleep.

Elevate Your Leg

Elevate your leg above the heart level to reduce the blood flow. You may put one or two pillows below your leg to elevate them.

Reduction of blood flow may also give you temporary relief and help you get a sound sleep.

OTC Pain Killers

This method is not for long-term use. You may take over-the-counter pain medications such as non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs for temporary pain relief.

Keep The Room Cold

Keep the room cold enough while you are sleeping. It’s also a temporary method for quick relief.

Topical Ointments

Certain anti-allergic and antifungal creams, lotions and ointments can help relieve the pain or allergic reaction.

Grierson-Gopalan Syndrome Treatment

Treatment Grierson-Gopalan Syndrome is focused on treating the causation of the disease.

Diabetes Treatment

Diabetes mellitus is one of the principal causes of burning feet syndrome. The treatment of diabetes may include;

  • Insulin therapy
  • Oral hypoglycemic agents
  • Dietary modifications
  • Avoiding high sugar foods
  • Daily exercise

Malnutrition Treatment

Treatment of malnutrition includes the dietary supplement of deficient metabolites. Improving the food habit and taking fruits that contain deficient metabolites also helps.

Pain Medications

The doctor may also prescribe you pain medications according to the symptoms.

Oral pain tablets or capsules are usually prescribed. However, the doctor may prescribe you topical pain medications for applying to the affected area.

Nervous System Treatment

The nervous system treatments may include after convalescent or anti-seizure drugs to promote muscle relaxation on your feet.

The doctor may also prescribe certain anti-depressant medications to cure the neuropathic pain.

Antifungal Treatment

If the doctor finds out that any fungal infection is responsible for burning feet syndrome, he may prescribe antifungal medications.

Other Treatments

Some other treatment methods may include;

  • Physiotherapy
  • Dietary modifications
  • Soft shoe soles
  • Anti-allergic treatment
  • Lifestyle modifications
  • Surgical treatment

Grierson Gopalan Syndrome Prevention

There is no exact prevention for burning foot syndrome, but there are some precautions that you may take to prevent Grierson Gopalan Syndrome.

  • Routine Medical Check-ups are the best prevention method for any infectious disease. If you have any pre-existing conditions, you should visit the doctor more often to get a regular checkup.

If there is any abnormality, it will be diagnosed during your checkup. Some diseases are very dangerous, and it takes a long time to get cured if the diagnosis is delayed. 

  • Wear perfectly fitted shoes. Prevent feet infections, athlete’s foot and other feet disorders. Tightly fitting shoes may lead to multiple complications such as nerve compression, ingrown toenail etc.

Wearing loose shoes may also lead to certain complications. So, be sure and take your time while buying shoes. 

  • Wear clean socks and shoes and maintain proper feet hygiene
  • Take some time every day to look after your body; if there is any infection or sign of abnormality
  • If you have diabetes, maintain the blood sugar at a normal level and follow the instructions of your doctor

When to See a Doctor?

Grierson Gopalan Syndrome is extremely painful and often unbearable. You may apply some home remedy to get temporary relief, but you should see a doctor if you often experience burning feet syndrome.

The symptoms when you should see a doctor may include;

  • Extreme pain
  • When a home remedy is not working
  • The pain persists all day long
  • Any signs of infections
  • Swelling
  • Loss of sensation
  • Allergic reaction on feet
  • The temperature of the feet is not decreasing

If you feel anything unusual or discomfort, you should not wait and consult a doctor.

Takeaway

Grierson Gopalan Syndrome is it extremely painful condition and often requires clinical attention. You may apply some home remedies for temporary relief.

If you have any pre-existing conditions, such as diabetes mellitus, you should control your blood sugar and take the medications prescribed by the doctor.

If you experience burning foot syndrome often, do not wait and consult a doctor.

Last Updated on September 3, 2022 by Learn From Doctor Team

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